Carbon Footprint Calculation for a Typical Roadway Section
Pavement infrastructure plays a significant role in modern society while aiding commutation and supporting commerce. Pavement has a limited lifespan and must be replaced or remediated every three to twenty years, based on the methods of construction. Due to economic and social development, vast amounts of greenhouse gas emissions are emitted into the atmosphere. Pavement construction requires enormous amounts of energy to obtain and process raw materials, transport, mix, and apply the final product of highway. This research evaluates greenhouse gas emissions for pavement using a group of typical pavement sections from Indiana and Oklahoma and identifying a carbon footprint index based on linear foot of pavement. A group of carbon offsets has been determined, using trees, medians, vegetative channels, etc., creating a “shopping list” of carbon offsets, and this will help owners, designers, and engineers make sustainable determinations. A carbon footprint index allows users to simply quantify the benefits of the carbon offsets. The index associates pavement infrastructure materials with their carbon footprint based on the linear foot of pavement.
Preliminary Investigation of Diesel Exhaust on Indoor Air Quality in Heavy Equipment Cabs
The Environmental Protection Agency identifies Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) as one of the five most urgent risks to public health. Given that heavy equipment operators spend most of their workday inside the equipment cab, poor IAQ may be a significant health issue for them. This case study presents an analysis of real-world pollutant concentration data from five wheel loaders in order to compare them with commonly used permissible exposure limits. The pollutants included nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and particulate matter. Results indicate that the permissible exposure limits were greatly exceeded by the average pollutant concentrations from the tailpipe for each wheel loader. There also appears to be a relationship between tailpipe pollutant concentrations and equipment engine activity. Future investigations were proposed for characterizing IAQ in heavy equipment cabs.